Дисциплина «Профессиональный английский язык»
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The British Civil Service
What does the British civil service represent? What is it designed for? Although the British government is essentially political, it depends on a permanent body of officials, the Civil Service, to administer the decisions of ministers and to keep the wheels of government — in the broadest sense — turning. The Civil Service, employing almost 600,000 people, is expected to discharge its possibilities in a politically impartial way.
The British Civil Service has been defined by the following characteristics. First, it is a non-political body. Civil servants are not appointed by political representatives and are disqualified from being elected either to the House of Commons or for the European Assembly. The service is therefore able to serve governments of any political persuasion. Secondly, it is permanent; whereas politicians come and go, the civil service remains. Civil servants enjoy security of tenure and once appointed cannot easily be removed. They advise ministers on policy and it is the minister that is answerable in parliament for government policy. This convention of ministerial responsibility means civil servants remain anonymous, a third characteristic of the service.
The foundations of the civil service were laid in the 19th century. An increase in government business during the nineteenth century demanded a full time service, because the great and increasing body of permanent officers possessing sufficient independence, character, ability and experience to be able to advise, assist, and to some extent to influence those who are from time to time set above them.
This «efficient body of permanent officers» became the civil service of the twentieth century, it established as a career service, in which people are expected to stay for a lifetime.
. Traditionally civil servants have been highly respected for their sense of public duty, for their honesty, impartiality and judgment. Their training took place within the workplace which encouraged the development of these service-wide values. Consequently, the service was characterized by conformity, uniformity and cohesion.
Fill in the blanks in these sentences choosing the words from the list below.
1. They … large sums for buying new books for the library.
2. The Department never … deadlines set by the Management.
Has he … enough experience of this type of work?
The Hotel … far short of clients’ expectations.
The tunnel project has already … behind schedule.
and now he has to … rough in the streets.
Our client is on a … budget, so don’t offer him this package holiday.
She always tries to … aside enough time for handling irate customers.
Choose the correct answer and write the letter (a, b, c or d).
—————————- a civil servant.
) am b) is
2. He ————————- a bank clerk.
) am b) is
) does d) are
o’clock every day.
begin b) am begin
to c) begin
) are meeting b) met
d) were meeting
——————-to Scotland on business next Tuesday.
going b) goes
going d) going
6. When I arrived at the meeting, my friend—————— home.
have gone b) goes already
already gone d)had already gone
7. There aren’t ——————- easy ways of learning languages.
8. Learning a second language is not the same —————— learning a first language.
10. Rarely ——— such a sunrise.
saw b) has she seen
has seen d) she had seen
/ domestic / trade / unemployment / incentives
The fall in _______________ rate will probably lead to more business investment.
Because of the euro-yen _______________ rate, Japanese exporters lost huge amounts of money that year.
The number of people claiming benefit rose to 945,000, and the _______________ rate climbed to 5.5%.
Prices went up again, and the country’s _______________ rate rose to 5.4% last month.
Exports have increased considerably, so now our balance of _______________ is positive again.
Our country is now attracting production from companies looking for a highly skilled _______________ force.
The chamber of commerce recommended giving tax _______________ to boost private sector investment.
The gross _______________ product is the standard measure of the overall size of the economy.
Too many rules and regulations and too much government _______________ in general have a negative impact on trade.
The government is trying hard to revive the economy and attract foreign _______________.
Match the sentence halves to make meaningful sentences.
1. I’m in charge of Marketing
2. As soon as we get the figures we need,
3. We can’t open a subsidiary in that country
4. While I’m head of this department,
5. Before you take up their offer,
will be massive investment in staff training.
the security conditions have improved.
complete the report.
should ask for advice.
our manager is away at the trade fair.
Underline the correct form in italics.
to all sides first, he would find it easier to resolve conflicts.
more popular if he treated people with respect.
two colleagues having an argument?
this contract, she’ll be promoted.
resign if he doesn’t get a pay increase?
in new machinery.
mistakes like that.
the things you don’t enjoy.
golf next Sunday?
it when I noticed something was wrong.
/ with / to
of our new series.
Tom apologised __________ making so many mistakes in his report.
__________ suggestions from staff.
It was my mistake, I know. I have already apologised __________ the director.
I couldn’t agree __________ the others that our suppliers were responsible.
to my presentation.
you an overview of the problem we faced.
about the ways we approached the new concept.
you to our new prototype.
of my talk.
the background to this project.
you know, our 1999 model had been successful but it was clear we needed new direction.
up, it took innovation, setbacks and pioneers to develop what is THE car for the twenty first century.
/ deal / delegate / invest / respond
money well spent.
__________ with problems very effectively.
Don’t try to do everything on your own. You should __________ tasks to your assistant more often.
Our previous manager didn’t even try to __________ to our concerns.
When your employees feel that you __________ in their abilities, they often start to perform better.